VIRTUAL ONLY

Tuesday, November 1, 2022

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO Workshop (API): From Web API to Native API
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Michael Yuan
Michael Yuan
Second State, Founder

Today, most SaaS providers provide web APIs that allow their users to customize their experience. The user often needs to set up and maintain a webhook server to receive API events, tolerate long latencies, and handle authentication and authorization. That is a lot of development and operation efforts besides the core business functions the user wants to perform. In another word, those web APIs are not serverless.

There is an emerging approach for users to interact with, extend and customize SaaS products through serverless functions. SaaS could enable users to submit code functions to be embedded in their SaaS account, much like AWS Lambda allowing users to embed serverless functions into the AWS infrastructure. In that way, the SaaS provides native integration points in the form of programming language APIs instead of web APIs to the users. It is much faster and safer than web APIs and allows developers to focus on business logic.

WebAssembly plays a crucial role in those SaaS serverless functions by providing a secure, safe, lightweight, and high-performance sandbox runtime for those user-submitted functions.

In this talk, Dr. Yuan will cover technical approaches to embedding WebAssembly functions, written in languages like Rust, Go, JavaScript and Python, into SaaS products and therefore turning them into aPaaS platforms. Those serverless functions could be embedded into the SaaS or “co-located” with the SaaS. He will demonstrate use cases with popular SaaS products such as Github and Slack. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO Workshop (API): Automated APIs for Scaling Enterprises: How to Set Standards and Create Smooth API Implementations
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Jeremy Glassenberg
Jeremy Glassenberg
Docusign, Product Leader, APIs

API standards and schemas have helped to automate much of API design, implementation and maintenance -- and not a moment too soon. As many tech companies experienced growth spurts in the past year, they ended up with multiple teams working on new products and new APIs. Consequently, they learned that their ways to create well-designed APIs wouldn't work so easily when multiple teams have to create them.

Thanks to new solutions (centralized around a good API gateway), growing companies can establish a scalable system for designing, implementing and launching consistent APIs across many teams. We’ll share best practices and solutions from experiences with enterprises in this phase to understand how to be effective working across Product, Infrastructure and Engineering teams to do so. 

Wednesday, November 2, 2022

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (API): Building APIs for Modern Developers
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Meherdeep Thakur
Meherdeep Thakur
Agora, Flutter | Android | Developer Evangelist

APIs have changed the way developers build their applications and now it's time that developers change their APIs so that they are fit for every kind of developer be it a novice developer or a person starting with their development journey.
In my talk I would like to go over how to design your APIs so that they are more intuitive and aligned with the end developer needs. I would also like to cover some best practices when it comes to architecting and documenting the APIs to offer the best developer experience. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (API): Why Do You Need a Microservice Catalog to Enhance Developer Productivity?
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Turja Narayan Chaudhuri
Turja Narayan Chaudhuri
Cloud Platform, Assistant Director

It is indeed a valid argument that microservices allows engineering organization to grow and scale, providing better constructs for isolation and independence. But, microservices do not only add technical complexity -they also introduce organizational complexity and pose a serious threat to scaling at the enterprise level.

Over time, with hundreds of services and no governance or oversight, when something breaks, nobody knows who to reach out to. A microservice catalog is a record/list of all the microservices that an enterprise has in its ecosystem, providing powerful information at your fingertips.

In this talk, you will learn how a microservice catalog facilitates a successful microservice at scale architecture by helping developers find and share services, providing DevOps teams metadata about services needed to make solid decisions, and support teams ownership and consumption information needed when something goes wrong. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (API): Distributed Systems: Key Concepts & Patterns
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Waleed Ashraf
Waleed Ashraf
Klarna, Senior Engineer

“Distributed Systems” is the main key to modern-day systems, microservices, and messaging brokers. This talk will be about the key concepts of Distributed Systems and different patterns being used in the industry. The topics we will go through are irrelevant to the technology and tech stack, so it’s good for engineers at all levels.

This talk is split into two parts. The first part will cover the key concepts and timeline of improvement in this field. In the second part, we will go through some of the main patterns which are being used in the industry to address the issues which come with distributed systems.

We'll go through concepts like Two Generals’ Problem, Consensus & Paxos, Cloud Spanner (CA), and patterns like Event Sourcing, CQRS, SAGA, etc. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] OPEN TALK (API): Optimizing Journeys: Waypoints, Matrix and Route Planning APIs
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Jose Jose Rojas Ealo
Jose Jose Rojas Ealo
TomTom, Developer Advocate TomTom Maps APIs

Since the explosion in the on-demand services around the world, the search for the best ETA provider is on!
Usually the TomTom Routing APIs would be used to plan and create routes for diverse vehicles and lots of restrictions, but with the Matrix Routing APIs to collect the distances and times for several locations, the product team thought that was enough to serve the industry, since we will always pair it with the Routing APIs.
Some months later we get feedback that clients were over using the API and making too many unnecessary calls to the backend, so we added a new end point for this specific use-case: the Waypoint Optimization,
This is the API design story from our developers and clients. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (API): The Different Approaches for API Security Scanning: SAST vs DAST
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Ravid Mazon
Ravid Mazon
Checkmarx, Security Researcher

APIs are a critical part of modern mobile, SaaS and web applications and can be found in customer-facing, partner-facing and internal applications.
By nature, APIs expose application logic and sensitive data, potentially leading to data breaches, account takeovers, and much more.
Because of this, APIs have increasingly become a target for attackers.
Without secure APIs, organizations would face many security risks and rapid innovation would be impossible.

In this talk, I will talk about the different approaches for API security scanning.
I will explain why it is essential to scan your API, the challenges, and how we can tackle them.
We will also talk about API Static analysis vs Dynamic analysis: the pros & cons, how to combine these scans with a "swagger" file to generate alerts for API misconfigurations, invalid API documentation, and test your API. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (API): API Strategy for Growth
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Savitha Ajitraj
Savitha Ajitraj
PayPal, Lead Product Manager

Discuss product led growth with an API first mindset to attract new merchants and their developer partner teams.

I will discuss about the culture and best practices every PM (Product manager) needs to embrace for scale irrespective of whether they deal with APIs directly or not to help their product scale for growth.

I will share insights of how we evangelize this as a culture at PayPal 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (API): Gittified and Powered-up API Docs
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Manasés Jesús
Manasés Jesús
Cumulocity IoT, Lead API and Microservices Advocate

If you build a microwave, a specification tells how that microwave works; it includes the most important details and perhaps a list of requirements that the end product should fulfill. Once the microwave gets built, the user’s manual shows how to operate and maintain it. In a similar way, you need a specification when building an API.

An API description document, also known as API specification, is a technical document that tells how a system or program works, and shows a consumer how to work with the API. The API documentation shows how to use an API, and it will typically include a technical reference as well as functional guides for how to interact with the API across various use cases.

Web APIs have been around for almost 20 years, but in the last few years the API-first concept has gained traction among teams. An API-first approach means that for any software development project, its APIs are treated as "first class citizens”, and these “citizens” need to have good documents.

Besides generating code from an API specification file, it is also possible to generate and publish its web documentation automatically using the GitHub ecosystem and other open-source tools. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (AI): Designing and Applying AI on Large Volume of IOT Telemetry Data in Azure
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Rahat Yasir
Rahat Yasir
ISAAC Instrument, AI, Director of Data Science & AI

IOT devices are producing large amount of telemetry data. We need to ingest them, store them, visualize them, analyze them and build ML models on them to make those data useful. In this session, we will talk about the ways to deal with IOT data, using IOT data to train AI models, building AI models and deploying AI models to inference on real time large volume of IOT data using Azure AI tools. 

- PDT
Makes Your Kubernetes Infrastructure Autonomous. An AI Driven Approach to Reduce Cloud Cost.
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Philip Andrews
Philip Andrews
CAST.AI, VP of Customer Success

Measuring and controlling costs in cloud environments is often complex. But it does not need to be. In this session, we will discuss how an AI driven approach renders your cloud native applications on Kubernetes fully autonomous and rightsizes your cluster in sub-minute intervals the cloud compute resources. We will go over an experiment with the deployment of an application, and apply autonomous techniques that fiercely controls and optimizes the cluster. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] OPEN TALK (API): The Right Data at the Right Time: Hyper-Personalized Real-Time Data at Internet Scale
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Peter Hughes
Peter Hughes
DiffusionData, Head of Cloud

As companies everywhere move to and create new applications in the cloud, the ability to deliver personalized real-time experiences is no longer a “nice-to-have” – it’s a competitive necessity for every digital service. However, with new experiences come new challenges, especially when handling high volume data for real-time delivery.

This talk will cover the ways in which traditional methods of data distribution must transition to innovative event-driven architectures, and we will walk through examples of how data wrangling-at-the-edge augments traditional stream processing to assure efficient delivery of hyper-personalized data at Internet scale. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (API): API Experience – Good Design for Better and Successful APIs That Engage with Your Customers
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Daniel Kocot
Daniel Kocot
codecentric, API Expert / Senior Solutions Architect

Everyone is talking about APIs. They are seen as a panacea in the age of digitization. But very few of them are really directly understandable, because APIs are usually created on the basis of a data model or the CRUD paradigm. To provide a successful API, much more is needed. And it is exactly this "more" that I would like to address in my presentation. To this end, we need to find answers to various questions. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO Workshop (AI): Intro to Machine Learning with ML.NET
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David Patrick
David Patrick
DSA, MCT, MCSD, MCSE, MVP

Come and get immersed into the world of machine learning with this introduction and demonstration of to ML.NET. We'll show how to create an app that can predict the type of iris flower based on features such as petal length. We'll show how to download and install ML.NET, create a data set, write the required c# code and run the finished app. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO Workshop (AI): Optimizing business problems with AI based business optimizers
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Rishiraj Anand
Rishiraj Anand
Red hat, Senior Software Engineer

Modern business problems require modern solutions. While AI as we know today can take decisions based on training ML models, there is a dependency on the historical data. Business optimizers can help you solve most of the problems that are relevant in modern business. For example, minimize fuel consumption, minimize driving time, minimize required vehicles and many similar problems are directly concerned with an online delivery platform. Optaplanner Is one such business optimizer tool that can help business people to take these business critical decisions keeping business constraints into account.

The session will enlighten the audience about the use cases and relevance of business optimizers in modern industry. We will start with what business optimizers are and how they are integrated into your product. We will also cover various other use cases where tools combined with other open source tools like rule language will help all stakeholders in business to take business critical decisions. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (API): APIs with Bounded Contexts: Modelling Apis with Domain-Driven Design
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Jose Haro Peralta
Jose Haro Peralta
microapis.io, Co-founder

APIs have become one of the cornerstones of digital transformations. As more and more businesses open up their APIs for public consumption, the concept of developer experience becomes crucial for the successful rollout of the APIs. Good developer experience with APIs depends on good principles of API governance, API management, and API design.
In this presentation, we explain how the principles of domain-driven design help us design APIs that are easier to understand and to consume. APIs are not just an HTTP interface to a database, and we’ll see how to use DDD to define the domain of an API and to model its resources. We’ll use strategic design to narrow down the scope of an API, and to avoid mixing properties from different domains. We’ll also discuss various heuristics that we can use to translate domain models and actions into the more restricted representational capabilities of REST APIs and CRUD operations.
The result of this exercise will be a well-structured API with consistent paths and resources that developers will love to use to and to build integrations with. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO Workshop (AI): Deploying Machine Learning Models with Pulsar Functions
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David Kjerrumgaard
David Kjerrumgaard
StreamNative, Developer Advocate

In this talk I will present a technique for deploying machine learning models to provide real-time predictions using Apache Pulsar Functions. In order to provide a prediction in real-time, the model usually receives a single data point from the caller, and is expected to provide an accurate prediction within a few milliseconds. 

Throughout this talk, I will demonstrate the steps required to deploy a fully-trained ML that predicts the delivery time for a food delivery service based upon real-time traffic information, the customer's location, and the restaurant that will be fulfilling the order. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] OPEN TALK (AI): It’s an AI Product Manager’s Job to Help an Organization Succeed with Predictive Machine Learning
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Paul Ortchanian
Paul Ortchanian
Bain Public, Founder, CEO, Head of Product, Data and Strategy

In short, AI is a lifecycle that requires the integration of data, machine learning models, and the software around it. It covers everything from scoping and designing to building and testing all the way through to deployment — and eventually requires frequent monitoring. Product managers need to ensure that data scientists are delivering results in efficient ways so business counterparts can understand, interpret, and use it to learn from. This includes everything from the definition of the problem, the coverage and quality of the data set and its analysis, to the presentation of results and the follow-up. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] OPEN TALK (AI): Building Enterprise-Grade Help Desk Bots For Microsoft Teams using Azure Communications Services
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Prashant G Bhoyar
Prashant G Bhoyar
AIS, Cloud Solution Architect

Microsoft's CEO Satya Nadella has said: "Human Language is the new UI layer, bots are like new application". As more and more bots are getting popular in homes and enterprises, the demand for custom bots is increasing at rapid space.

Azure Communication Services is a cloud-based communications service that lets you add voice, video, chat, and telephony to your apps.

The Microsoft Bot framework is a comprehensive open-source offering that we can use to build and deploy high-quality bots.

Microsoft Cognitive Services let you build apps with powerful algorithms to see, hear, speak, understand and interpret our needs using natural methods of communication, with just a few lines of code. Easily add intelligent features – such as emotion and sentiment detection, vision and speech recognition, language understanding, knowledge, and search – into your app, across devices and platforms such as iOS, Android, and Windows, keep improving and are easy to set up.

In this demo-driven session, we will cover how to build the enterprise-grade intelligent bots in using Microsoft Bot Framework, Cognitive Services, and Azure Communication Services and deploy in Microsoft Teams and other platforms like SharePoint, Public-Facing Web Sites, etc 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] OPEN TALK (API): Enabling Untapped Use Cases - Edge, Memory-Constrained, and Server-Side
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David vonThenen
David vonThenen
Symbl.ai, Principal Developer Advocate

Many use cases we see today for processing natural language happen in a handful of languages. The prominent ones are Javascript, Python, and Swift/Java (with some Kotlin). Why? Javascript because it naturally integrates with Communication Platforms as a Service. Python because it's foundational in many Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence projects. Finally, Swift/Java because there are more mobile devices than anything else.

This conference is about APIs, but an integral and equally important topic is how we interact with those APIs. I'm talking about Software Development Kits (SDK), which are essential projects that consume APIs and become helpful abstractions that enable developers to build quickly.

This talk is about doing or, more specifically, not doing what's expected. It's about doing something different. The focus of this talk is that providing an SDK in an atypical language within a given ecosystem will allow users to build projects and applications in untapped neighboring communities. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] OPEN TALK (API): Creating Unique Virtual Card Payment Experiences with U.S. Bank Card as a Service APIs
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Luke Utting
Luke Utting
U.S. Bank, Assistant Vice President, Technical Sales Consultant

This session will share how U.S. Bank Card as a Service APIs can be used to create user experiences that reshape the payment experience - reducing friction, focusing actions on user objectives and speed them through the travel purchase process. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] OPEN TALK (AI): BUILD ML ENHANCED EVENT STREAMING APPLICATIONS WITH JAVA MICROSERVICES
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Timothy Spann
Timothy Spann
StreamNative, Developer Advocate

In this talk we will walk through how to build event streaming applications as functions running in with cloud native messaging via Apache Pulsar that run on near infinite scale in any cloud, docker or K8. We will show you have to deploy ML functions to transform real-time data for IoT, Streaming Analytics and many other use cases. After this talk you will be able to build Java microservices with ease and deploy them anywhere utilizing the open source unified streaming and messaging platform, Apache Pulsar. Finally, we will show you have to add dashboards with Web Sockets, no code data sinks, integrate with Apache NiFi data pipelines, SQL Reports with Apache Spark and finally continuous ETL with Apache Flink. I have built many of these applications for many organizations as part of the FLiPN Stack. Let's build next generation applications today regardless if your data is REST APIs, Sensors, Logs, NoSQL Sources, Events or Database tables. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] OPEN TALK (AI): Dataset Design for Legally Clean, Technically Superior AI Development
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Michael Osterrieder
Michael Osterrieder
vAIsual, Co-Founder and CEO

With data being the oil of machine learning, the adage “garbage in, garbage out” could not be truer. When I began to build the technology for photos on demand, I quickly realized that using scraped data presented both technical and legal minefields. As a result we at vAIsual decided to create our own datasets with professional, studio photography and GDPR compliant model releases. In this presentation I will explain how the lighting conditions and work flow for dataset design compliments the latest algorithms to deliver photo realistic images. 

Thursday, November 3, 2022

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (AI): How to Fool Turing: Build Your Improved Chatbot Using Large Language Models
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Yuval Belfer
Yuval Belfer
AI21 Labs, Developer Advocate

Chatbots are pretty frustrating, right? That’s because more often than not they sound like... well, bots. With Large Language Models, you can now get more advanced and fluent conversational agents. In this workshop, you will create an online customer service representative using AI21 Studio’s large language models. We’ll start from scratch, make the common mistakes along the way (so you don’t have to), and demonstrate cool solutions! No prior knowledge required. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (AI): Using Machine Learning to detect fraud in Payments
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Tamsin Crossland
Tamsin Crossland
Icon Solutions, Senior Architect

This presentation discusses how Machine Learning can be applied to Payments to respond rapidly to known and emerging patterns of fraud, and to detect patterns of fraud that may not otherwise be identified.
It will cover techniques that have been used and are emerging in fraud detection including rule-based techniques, supervised learning and unsupervised learning. The presentation includes a demonstration using TensorFlow to detect fraud. This will illustrate the process of preparing training and test data, learning and then applying the model to generate potential fraud events.
The talk will also explore potential issues including data bias and mitigating approaches. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (API): Build Resilient Applications Using Orchestration
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Cherish Santoshi
Cherish Santoshi
Orkes, Developer Relations Engineer

As we move towards an exciting future of more distributed systems, we are bound to encounter microservices written in different languages and infrastructures.
The resiliency of different applications only makes sense if they come together beautifully to create one invincible application.

In this session, we will talk about how companies like Netflix, Tesla, etc. used orchestration to build robust and scalable applications that inspire innovation. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (AI): Avoid Mistakes Building AI Products
Karol Przystalski
Karol Przystalski
Codete, CTO

Based on Gartner's research, 85% of AI projects fail. In this talk, we show the most typical mistakes made by the managers, developers, and data scientists that might make the product fail. We base on ten case studies of products that failed and explain the reasons for each fail. On the other hand, we show how to avoid such mistakes by introducing a few lifecycle changes that make an AI product more probable to succeed. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (AI): Enabling AI for Developers
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Orly Amsalem
Orly Amsalem
cnvrg.io, VP of AI Innovation

Gartner TalentNeuron reveals that, in the U.S. employment market, there are roughly 140,000 people who describe themselves as data scientists. The supply of data science talent falls short compared to the demand for AI in everyday applications. Meanwhile, there are about 30M software developers that are looking for ways to enhance their applications with AI capabilities. The use of AI solutions is growing every day, with recommendation engines, text detection, virtual agents and more. As demand for AI grows, the fate of AI’s maturity relies on making AI accessible to developers, engineers, and business users, and offering the tools to apply machine learning in minutes.
In this session we will talk about how developers can become the main drivers of AI transformation and give an overview of cnvrg.io AI Blueprints, a new capability designed for data scientists, and software developers to build and create AI and integrate it to their applications. In minutes, any software developer or engineer can apply object detection, text-detection, pose-detection, scene detection and more into any application or solution they are building. Developers can use their own data to train and deploy their models using customizable and open source ML pipelines for any use case or industry. We will end with a real-life example of how to build and deploy a production-quality AI Blueprint in minutes. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] OPEN TALK (API): Key Benefits of Modernizing Monolith Legacy Applications to Microservices With the Strangler Pattern
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Amir Rapson
Amir Rapson
vFunction, CTO and Co-Founder

Transforming monolithic applications into microservices is a fundamental element for business modernization in order to innovate, scale and retain competitive positioning in the market. While modernization takes many forms, transforming monolithic applications into microservices is the most effective way to regain engineering velocity. In this session, Amir Rapson, CTO and co-founder of vFunction, will present how an AI assisted method that implements the Strangler Pattern to transform existing legacy monolithic applications into cloud-native microservices is used and how it benefits developers. This technical workshop will also include insights into how to determine components needed to run in parallel to existing monolithic code, the key factors for selecting components to refactor and critical elements to executing a successful app modernization strategy. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (AI): Enriching 3D Point Cloud Data with Artificial Intelligence
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Rodrigo Cabello
Rodrigo Cabello
Plain Concepts, Research Engineer

3D point clouds provide us with detailed and precise information about any environment thanks to the use of LIDAR scanners. The use of artificial intelligence over point clouds allows us to create a digital twin.

In this session, we will introduce the point cloud concept and explain in detail the current state of the art of different artificial intelligence techniques to object detection and segmentation.

Point cloud datasets have a million points and are difficult to process. For this reason, the most efficient encoder for object detection will be used: CUDA-Point pillars. This model has a good performance to make inferences in IoT devices in real-time.

A real case about pipes detection (in industrial plants) will be shown. All the deep learning workflow will be explained step by step: from training (with Pytorch) to model optimization and quantization (with tensorRT). This demo will be run in an Nvidia Jetson nano. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (AI): Leveraging Automated Machine Learning to Enable Anyone to Develop Machine Learning Solutions
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Hugo Barona
Hugo Barona
Ergo, Cloud Solution Architect

Nowadays, several business owners know that leveraging Artificial Intelligence capabilities, on their systems and applications, can enable their businesses to achieve better results. But building Artificial Intelligence solutions may be a time-consuming and complex process, so consequently, some of these people give up of building such solutions, since they or their team do not have the expertise and capacity required, or sometimes they end-up paying to third-party companies to build these solutions and as a consequence, they end-up doing a significant investment on building these solutions. Azure Automated Machile Learning is the solution to enable anyone to build the Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning solutions at low cost and with the best quality possible. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] OPEN TALK (AI): Data-Driven Models Using Graphs for Communication Networks
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Caio Vinicius Dadauto
Caio Vinicius Dadauto
Encora, Data Scientist

Behavior identification is a typical requirement for communication network issues, such as malicious call identification, DoS attacks, and fault recognition. Classical data-driven models using regular-structure data are widely explored unsuccessfully, due to the lack of expressivity of these types of data.

In his technical session, Caio Vinicius Dadauto will provide details of why graphs are suitable for communication networks and how to use them to improve the quality of machine learning models. He will give an overview of graph neural networks, graph kernels, and complex network metrics emphasizing the relevance of these graph properties to data-driven solutions in communication networks. 

- PDT
[#VIRTUAL] PRO TALK (API): API Challenges for the Metaverse (AR, VR) Ecosystem
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Suyash Joshi
Suyash Joshi
UI/UX Engineer and designer

If Metaverse is the next big thing, as creators and users we shouldn't have to deal with proprietary metaverses that live in silos.

In this talk, we will examine the current challenges and potential solutions for metaverse tech based on developing applications for several AR/VR platforms:

1. Unity and Unreal Games Engines both provided APIs to build AR/VR experiences.

2. iOS & Android have their own frameworks - ARCore & ARKit to build mobile AR Apps

3. WebXR initiative is working to bring VR and AR technology to the web using standard browser support but it's currently limited.

4. Occulus and Roblox have their own frameworks and APIs

To overcome these challenges developers should re-use their code not re-write the same logic for different tools/platforms. Architects need to define a standard-based approach that not only has common sets of APIs but also APIs that allow connecting from one system to another just like HTTP does for the web.